The Agreement on trade aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) is an international agreement between all member states of the World Trade Organization (WTO). It establishes minimum standards for the regulation of different forms of intellectual property (IP) by national governments, as applied to nationals of other WTO member countries.  TRIPS was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) between 1989 and 1990 and is managed by the WTO. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the international organization that deals with the rules of trade between nations. Since February 2005, 148 countries have been members of the WTO. By being admitted to the WTO, countries undertake to comply with the 18 specific agreements annexed to the agreement establishing the WTO. You cannot choose to participate in some agreements, but not in others (with the exception of some “plurilateral” agreements that are not mandatory). A more detailed overview of the TRIPS Agreement The TRIPS Agreement. is the most comprehensive multilateral agreement on intellectual property to date.
This transitional period, codified in Article 66(1) of the TRIPS Agreement, will begin in 1996, when the Treaty will apply to the remainder of WTO accession, one year after the opening of the World Trade Club. This article exempts least developed countries from the obligation to implement most WTO rules on intellectual property, with the exception of the articles on domestic treatment, most-favoured-nation and “multilateral agreements for the acquisition or maintenance of protection” within the framework of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). TRIPS conditions that impose more standards beyond TRIPS were also discussed.  These free trade agreements contain conditions that limit the ability of governments to create competition for generic drug manufacturers. In particular, the United States has been criticized for encouraging protection far beyond the standards imposed by TRIPS. U.S. free trade agreements with Australia, Morocco, and Bahrain have extended patentability by requiring patents to be available for new uses of known products.  The TRIPS Agreement allows for the issuance of compulsory licences at the discretion of a country. The more ad hoc conditions provided for in the free trade agreements between the United States and Australia, Jordan, Singapore and Vietnam have limited the application of compulsory licenses to emergency situations, antitrust measures and cases of non-commercial public use.  It is expected that trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) will have the greatest impact on the pharmaceutical sector and access to medicines. .